THE GRADUATE AND UNDERGRADUATE PAGE
The CAPD/ACDP recognizes that the future national voice of pediatric dentistry in Canada lies within its graduate student population. Whether students are participating in a program within Canada or in the United States, there is one common thread amongst them all - they are linked together and with their active CAPD/ACDP member colleagues through the CAPD/ACDP website.
Students are welcome to submit announcements and/or news that they wish to share on the website about their activities relating to student affairs, meetings or scientific research by contacting the site administrator.
CAPD/ACPD also recognizes the importance of our undergraduate students in Dentistry who have taken an active interest in Paediatric Dentistry. CAPD/ACPD, through the establishment of the Norm Levine Undergraduate Student scholarship, continues to encourage and support the development of these young learners.
There are set guidelines that graduate students need to follow in order to attend and/or submit abstracts for the 3M ESPE Graduate Student Research presentations. The following PDF file contains the information necessary for students' participation:
Please note that the 2022 deadline for submission of Abstracts is July 15, 2022
The annual 3M Oral Care Graduate Student Research Presentations and Awards are a result of the partnership formed between 3M Oral Care and CAPD/ACDP. The money 3M Oral Care generously donated goes to Canadian graduate students in pediatric dentistry who present their research topics at the CAPD/ACDP Annual General Meeting.
Each year, 5 Graduate students will be invited to the Annual meeting to present their research. Invited students are eligible for the 3M Oral Care CAPD/ACDP Graduate Student Award of $1000 which is awarded to the best presenter as determined by a panel of judges. 3M Oral Care also awards a sample of their product line to all graduate student presenters.
In addition to qualifying for the 3M Oral Care Award, CAPD/ACDP will provide each presenter with Complimentary registration for the Conference Scientific Sessions.
The 2021 Virtual Presentations took place on Saturday September 25
CAPD/ACDP Congratulates Dr. Erin Goertzen of the University of Toronto
as the winner of the 3M Presentation Award
Dr. Goertzen will be honoured at the CAPD/ACDP Annual Conference in Whistler, BC in October, 2022
CAPD/ACDP sincerely thanks the other excellent presenters.
Drs. Melika Modabber, Ayala Rubin, Zahra Samji and Jessica Tam
The 2021 Presenters and Topics
Dr. Erin Goertzen
Investigating the learning curve in dental caries diagnosis from children's bitewing radiographs amongst dental trainees
Goertzen E1,2, Boutis K3, Perschbacher K2,4, Barrett EJ1,2, Casas MJ1,2.
1 Discipline of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
2 Department of Dentistry, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
3 Division of Emergency Medicine, ImageSim, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
4 Discipline of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Background: Accurate radiographic diagnosis of interproximal dental caries is a key competency for dentists treating children. To date, no study investigating competency of Canadian and international dental students in radiographic diagnosis of interproximal dental caries in children exists. Computer-assisted learning (CAL) programs have shown to improve learning in medical education and may demonstrate similar positive effects in dental education. To our knowledge, there are currently no CAL programs that incorporate the diagnosis of interproximal dental caries in the primary dentition.
Objectives: To develop an interactive CAL tool designed to measure the amount and rate of skill acquisition and improve diagnosis of interproximal dental caries in children’s bitewing radiographs amongst undergraduate dental students, post-graduate pediatric dentistry residents and general practice trainees.
Methods: This was a multicenter prospective cross-sectional study. We enrolled undergraduate dental students in their second, third, or fourth year of study, graduate pediatric dentistry residents, and general practice trainees in accredited dental programs in Canada and Australia. Study participants learned to interpret children’s bitewing radiographs on a web-based platform by deliberately practicing 193 cases with the goal of achieving a mastery learning standard of 75% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Participants identified the presence/absence of dental caries, and if present, were tasked to identify the specific location of all interproximal dental caries on the radiograph. A sample size of 95 was determined using a McNemar test power analysis.
Results: To date, there are 59 participants enrolled, 37 of which have started doing cases. From these 37 participants, 8021 cases have been completed, and three participants achieved the competency standard (example participant data, Figure 1). After data collection is complete, we will calculate the diagnostic performance change from initial to peak accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity across all study participants and compare performance trends. We will also report the number of cases completed to achieve the mastery learning standard.
Conclusion: Employing the technique of deliberate practice with this CAL tool has demonstrated feasibility and may prove as a useful adjunct to traditional educational methods for diagnosis of interproximal dental caries in children’s bitewing radiographs.
Dr. Melika Modabber
Qualitative study of children’s dental experiences and ways to improve them
Author: Melika Modabber D.M.D, MSc candidate University of Toronto
Supervisors: Dr. L. Dempster PhD, University of Toronto,. Dr. A. Taddio PhD, University of Toronto
Thesis Committee: Dr. C. Meghan McMurtry PhD, University of Guelph, Dr. K. Campbell, MSc., D.D.S MSc., F.R.C.D.(c), University of Toronto
Background: Currently, limited data exists pertaining to childrens’ perceived dental experiences, and what can be done to enhance such dental experiences. Understanding this knowledge gap is critical to establish more patient-centered dental care.
Objectives: Using one-on-one interviews, this qualitative study sought to evaluate children’s perceptions about their dental experiences and explore their ideas about how to improve their experiences using the CARD™ system adapted for the context of dentistry.
Methods: Virtual video interviews were conducted with patients aged 8-12 years. A purposive sample of patients receiving comprehensive care in the last 12-months (Nov 2019-2020) at the Pediatric Dental Clinic at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto was obtained. Powerpoint slides were used to orient participants to aspects of dental visits and procedures. Children’s perceptions of various dental treatments and ways to enhance those experiences were elicited through semi-structured interview questions. A modified CARD™ system was introduced and its role in improving various dental experiences was evaluated. CARD™ (Comfort, Ask, Relax, Distract) is a patient-centred framework used to promote coping as evaluated previously during vaccinations. Data were analyzed using Inductive Thematic Analysis as described by Braun and Clarke (2006), whereby major themes were constructed based on recurrent patterns identified within the data.
Results: To date, nine children have been interviewed. Their dental experiences ranged from routine preventive treatments (i.e. cleaning) to invasive procedures (i.e. administration of local anesthesia [LA]). These children perceived non-invasive procedures to be “fine”, “enjoyable”, and “uneventful”. Conversely, invasive procedures were considered “painful”, and “uncomfortable”. Major themes constructed from the data include the importance of parental presence and effective communication by dental professionals. Children experienced reduced anxiety if they perceived their dentist to be empathic and warm, with an open, honest communication style. In contrast, poor communication and impatience negatively influenced the dental experience. Patients were highly receptive of the CARD™ system to help them cope with dental treatment, particularly during invasive dental procedures. Within CARD™, participants preferred to employ Comfort, Relax (deep belly breathing), and Distract interventions (audio-visual distractions) as techniques to mitigate dental anxiety and optimize their dental experience. Children preferred information sharing about the CARD™ system prior to future appointments by their parents or dental providers.
Conclusions: This study suggests that children have multifaceted views towards their dental treatment and are highly receptive to the CARD™ system as an intervention to enhance their dental experiences.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research In Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
Dr. Ayala Rubin
Nitrous Oxide Delivery Systems in Dentistry: A Critical Review
Ayala Rubin, BA, DDS
Supervisor: Carilynne Yarascavitch, B.Sc., D.D.S., M.Sc., Dip. A.D.B.A.
Introduction; Nitrous oxide and oxygen sedation (NOS) is used extensively in dentistry today as a common form of minimal sedation for adult and paediatric patients undergoing dental procedures. As nitrous oxide is both a green-house gas and an occupational hazard, it is important to conserve nitrous oxide and avoid leaks into the surrounding environment. There are a number of design factors that can be implemented into a nitrous oxide and oxygen device to optimize delivery, including the way the gas is released from the tanks, the scavenging unit, and the mask used for the patient to inhale the gasses. A critical review was undertaken to reflect on the current gas delivery mechanisms available for NOS in medical and dental settings and to highlight knowledge gaps that can be improved by further research in the dental setting.
Body of Presentation; Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined, and a search strategy was developed. Final searches of Medline, Embase and Web of Science were conducted on June 30, 2021, resulting in 1056 articles retrieved. Title and abstract screening, followed by full-text review, resulted in a total of 111 articles being included for this review. The medical literature demonstrated that demand-driven NOS devices (where inspiration releases the gasses) are widely used in adult populations, and that continuous-flow NOS devices (where gasses are released continuously) are commonly used in the pediatric population. In contrast, the dental literature reports continuous-flow NOS devices almost exclusively. Both the medical and dental literature discuss the importance of scavenging to prevent occupational nitrous oxide exposure, and advise use of a double-mask to avoid leakage. This presentation will review these delivery systems and considerations for their use.
Summary; NOS is used extensively in both medical and dental settings. Knowledge of the delivery system used, ideal scavenging, and consideration for a demand-driven delivery device in dentistry can help providers optimize nitrous oxide in their practices.
Dr. Zahra Samji
Investigating Taurodontism in an Adolescent Population Using Dental Panoramic Radiographs
Samji Z, MacDonald D. (The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada)
Objectives: Taurodontism was thought to be associated mainly with oro-facial syndromes but studies in normal Chinese and Brazilian adult populations shown that this trait is relatively common. We hypothesize that taurodontism is a variation of normal root morphology that may be present in an adolescent population as an incidental finding.
Methods: Digital dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) taken of 124 adolescents aged between 15 and 20 years old (male: female ratio; 59:65), attending the University of British Columbia’s Faculty of Dentistry Clinic between July 2006 and June 2019 were examined. Unrestored first and second permanent molars with closed apices were measured digitally and a taurodont ratio index was obtained using the Shifman and Chanannel criteria.
Results: The total number of teeth examined was 992 and the proportion of taurodont teeth was 17%. Of the 124 cases, 68 had at least one taurodont tooth. There were 43 cases with bilateral taurodont teeth. Taurodontism had a higher predilection for females (63%) as compared to males (46%). This difference was statistically significant for all molars with a P value ranging from P = .003 to P = .043 except for the upper left second permanent molar (tooth 27) and the lower left second permanent molar (tooth 37). The extent of taurodontism was mostly mild (53%).
Conclusions: Our results suggest that mild taurodontism is relatively common in the local adolescent population similar to what was reported elsewhere. The ability to identify these teeth and diagnose them early can help inform treatment planning decisions.
Dr. Jessica Tam
Chinese-Canadian Parents’ Attitude Towards General Anesthesia for Pediatric Dental Treatment
Tam J1, Donnelly L1, von Bergmann HC1, Mathu-Muju K1
1Department of Oral Biological & Medical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (UBC)
Objectives: Obtaining informed consent for dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia (GA) for young children with extensive treatment needs is a patient-centered process involving shared decision-making with the family. However, due to intercultural differences, this may present challenges with immigrant families who may not be familiar with North American consent processes and standards of care. This study aimed to explore the barriers and facilitators to immigrant Chinese parents’ provision of informed consent for the use of GA to manage the behaviour of pre-cooperative children with extensive dental treatment needs.
Methods: A semi-structured, open-ended questionnaire utilizing vignettes was developed to guide the interview process with immigrant Chinese parents of young children presenting for dental care in Vancouver, Canada. Interviews were conducted in Mandarin and subsequently transcribed, translated, and coded; thematic analysis determined emerging themes.
Results: Six major themes emerged from 12 interviews: parental expectations of young children’s ability to cooperate for extensive dental treatment; differences in intercultural perspectives around the need to protect a child’s developing psyche; parental concerns about safety and possible adverse impacts on neurodevelopment; influence of parental knowledge of oral health in the primary dentition; influence of economic factors on providing informed consent; influence of ethnic Chinese cultural values on the informed consent process.
Conclusions: The results of this study suggests that differing intercultural expectations related to oral health care for children may present significant barriers to obtaining informed consent for dental rehabilitation under GA for Chinese-Canadian parents. It also emphasizes the importance to discuss potential adverse outcomes associated with GA at the parent consultation appointment. In order to empower the family to make the best informed decision, dentists should consider the acculturation discrepancy of immigrant families to ensure the optimal overall health of the child/family.
The Abstracts from past Annual Conferences may be found at
The Dr. Keith Titley Pediatric Dentistry Graduate Training Scholarship
The 2022-2023 Deadline for submission - October 31, 2022
Dr. Keith Titley was a full Professor in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto from 1970 to 2008. Keith worked tirelessly as an educator in both undergraduate and graduate training in Pediatric Dentistry.
He was a mentor and a friend to many graduate trainees in Pediatric Dentistry and the products of his work are spread across Canada providing advanced oral health care to children, and education and research in Pediatric Dentistry. He was the supervisor for countless diploma theses in Pediatric Dentistry and the supervisor for as many M.Sc in Pediatric Dentistry theses.
Keith also worked tirelessly first as Chief Examiner and then as the Registrar for the Royal College of Dentists of Canada. In doing so he insured the importance of advanced training in the recognized specialty programs of Canada and as such insured an examination process that was fair and equitable for all dental specialties.
Keith has also been a strong supporter and member of the Canadian Academy of Pediatric Dentistry/Academie Canadienne de Dentisterie Pediatrique.
In recognition of Dr. Titley’s quiet, yet tireless work in the area of Pediatric Dentistry this scholarship of the Canadian Academy of Pediatric Dentistry/Academie Canadienne de Dentisterie Pediatrique has been named in his honour.
ELIGIBILITY AND APPLICATION PROCESS: PLEASE NOTE THAT THE DEADLINE FOR APPLICATION IS OCTOBER 31, 2021
Read the full Terms of Reference and Instructions for Application for this scholarship.
Download the Dr. Keith Titley Pediatric Dentistry Graduate Training Scholarship Application Form
(After filling in the form in Microsoft Word, follow the instructions in the Terms of Reference document above.)
Download the Dr. Keith Titley Pediatric Dentistry Graduate Training Scholarship Advisor Statement.
(After your advisor fills in the form in Microsoft Word, follow the instructions in the Terms of Reference document above.)
Past Recipients of the Dr. Keith Titley Pediatric Dentistry Graduate Training Scholarship
Dr. Norm Levine was the first graduate trainee in pediatric dentistry from the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto program in 1960. Norm was Professor and Head of the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto from 1976 to 1993. He was an internationally renowned and respected leader in dentistry for Persons with Disabilities.
Demonstrating a steadfast passion for pediatric dentistry, Norm raised its profile and reputation. The “Bear”, as he was known, was a caring and compassionate gentle giant He was awarded the Order of Canada for his commitment to pediatric dentistry and those with special oral health care needs. He instilled that passion in many undergraduate and graduate trainees in pediatric dentistry and many of them, from the very program that he became Professor and Chair of, have relocated across Canada and the world to private practices, hospital departments and academia promoting that same passion for excellence in pediatric dentistry.
It is with great honour and respect that the membership of the Canadian Academy of Pediatric Dentistry/ Academie Canadienne de Dentisterie Pediatrique has established The Canadian Academy of Pediatric Dentistry/Academie Canadienne de Dentisterie Pediatrique Dr. Norman Levine Undergraduate Dental Student Award.
There will be one award given annually to each accredited Canadian Faculty of Dentistry for a third or fourth year DDS/DMD student who demonstrates aptitude and passion for the field of pediatric dentistry and/or dentistry for persons with special needs.
The recipient should be nominated by the Undergraduate Pediatric Dentistry director in consultation with the respective faculties’ awards committee. The recipient of this award will receive $200.00.
Accredited Canadian Faculties of Dentistry may contact and invoice the Canadian Academy of Pediatric Dentistry/Academie Canadienne de Dentisterie Pediatrique with the nominees name at firstname.lastname@example.org once annually within their respective academic awards cycle.
Congratulations to the 2021 Recipients
(as of October 14, 2021)
Daniella Battaglia, University of Manitoba
Yasmine Bouferguène, Université Montréal
Rachel Korman, McGill University
Andréanne Légaré, Université Laval
Brandon Linaksita, Western University
Shaun Monty, University of British Columbia
Catherine Murphy, Dalhousie University
Andrew Scarsellone, University of Toronto
Mireille Szostak, University of Alberta
Serena Liu, University of Saskatchewan
Chers membres de l’Académie canadienne de dentisterie pédiatrique,
Je tiens à vous remercier pour le prix Norman-Levine, cela me touche énormément. La clientèle pédiatrique est celle qui me passionne depuis toujours. Avant même d’étudier en médecine dentaire, j’ai eu des emplois où j’ai travaillé avec les enfants et j’adorais cela. La dentisterie pédiatrique me permet donc de travailler avec une clientèle que j’apprécie beaucoup et de joindre le domaine si intéressant de la médecine dentaire. Ce prix représente tout le travail et le plaisir que j’ai eu cette année en dentisterie pédiatrique.
Je voudrais aussi remercier Dr Yoon qui m’avait nominé pour ce prix et avec qui j’ai beaucoup appris en clinique avec les enfants.
Avec toute ma gratitude,
Undergraduate students actively enrolled in an educational program in dentistry accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation of Canada or an accreditation body with which the Commission on Dental Accreditation of Canada has a reciprocal accreditation agreement, are eligible to apply for Undergraduate student membership.
All student members shall be exempt from membership dues, receive copies of all general membership communications and publications without charge.
Also…Undergraduate student members may attend meetings of the Academy after registering and paying all associated fees. For complete details see Section 4.2.5 of the Constitution and By-Laws.
Students looking for information on the National Dental Specialty Exams (NDSE) may find information at